SPECIAL SESSION ON
Monday evening, 1 May 1989 at 7:30
P.M.; Exhibit Hall E,
Baltimore Convention Center; E. F. Redish, presiding
Introduction. E. F. REDISH,
Comments. J. A. KRUMHANSL, APS
Fusion: Recent Results and Open Questions. S. E. Jones,
(Same Paper as J1 3.)
Cold Fusion: Can It
Be True? A Theoretical Point of View. J. Rafelski,
and Problems Raised by Cold Fusion Experiments. S. E. Koonin,
Calorimetry, Neutron Flux, Gamma Flux, and Tritium Yield
from Electrochemically Charged Palladium in D20. Nathan
Lewis, Charles Barnes, Steven Koonin, California
Institute of Technology.
Boson Screening of
Deuterium in Metals. K. B. Whaley,
An Investigation of
Cold Fusion Using a Sensitive Neutron Detector. W. K.
Brooks, D. G. Marchlenski, J. D. Kalen, M. S. Islam, M. Kaitchuck,
R. McCreery, R. N. Boyd, P. Holbrooke,
H. Dyke, The
Search for Neutron
Production in a Palladium-Heavy Water Electrolytic Cell. R. Hirosky, E. Buchanan, J. Jorne,
A. C. Melissinos, J. Toke, University of Rochester.
A Search for Cold
Fusion Neutrons at ORELA. D. P. Hutchinson, R. K. Richards,
C. A. Bennett, C. C. Havener, C. H. Ma, F. G.
Percy, R. R. Spencer, J. K. Dickens, B..D. Rooney,
National Laboratory; J. Bullock
IV, G. L. Powell, Y-12 Development.
"Excess Power in Cold Fusion." W. E. Meyerhof,
; D. L. Huestis, D. C. Lorents, SRI
Generation of D-D
Fusion-Reaction Bursts in Metal Deuterides, H. Furth, S. Bernabei, S.
Cowley, R. Kulsrud, Princeton Plasma Physics
Gammas from Cold
Fusion. D. Bailey,
Sources of Neutrons
and Tritium from D-Li-6 Mixtures. Lawrence Cranberg, TDN, Inc.
Searches for Cold
Fusion. E. B. Norman, B. Sur, K.
T. Lesko, K. R. Czerwinski, H. L. Hall, R. A.
Henderson, D. C. Hoffman, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
Search for Cold
Fusion in Electrolytic Cells. D. R. McCracken, J. Paquette,
R. E. Johnson, N. A. Briden, W. G. Cross, A. Arneja, D. C. Tennant, M. A. Lone, W. J. L. Buyers,
Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories.
DD-Fusion Neutrons. D. Seliger,
K. Weisener, A. Meister, D. Ohrns,
D. Rahner, R. Schwierz,
P. Wustner, Technical University, Dresden.
Fusion Rates for
Hydrogen Isotopic Molecules of Relevance for Cold Fusion. K. Szalewicz, J. D. Morgan III,
H. J. Monkhorst,
Upper Limits to
Fusion Rates of Isotopic Hydrogen Molecules at High Electron Density Interstitial
Pd Sites. L. Wilets, M. Alberg, J. J. Rehr, J. Mustre de Leon,
Effects Cannot Enhance the Cold Fusion Rate Enough. A. J.
Leggett, G. Baym,
Induced Excess Heat in a "Cold Fusion" Cell with a Zr2Pd
Electrode. Joseph Cantrell (Dept. of Chemistry), William E.
Wells (Dept of Physics),
Search for Fusion
Products Using X-Ray Detection. M. R. Deakin,
J. D. Fox, K. W. Kemper, E. G. Myers, W. N. Shelton, J. G. Skofronick, Florida State University.
Search for Neutrons
and Gamma-Rays from "Cold Fusion" in Deuterided Metals. M. Gai, S. L. Rugari, R. H. France; B. J. Lund, Z. Zhao, Yale
University; A. J. Davenport, H. S. Isaacs, K. G. Lynn, Brookhaven National
SPECIAL SESSION II
ON COLD FUSION
Tuesday evening, 2 May 1989 at 7:30
P.M.; Room 317,
Baltimore Convention Center; David Micha, presiding
A Survey of Cold
Fusion. Douglas R. O. Morrison, CERN.
Dynamic Response of
Thermal Neutron Measurements in Electrochemically Produced Cold Fusion
Subject to Pulsed Current. J. R. Granada, J. Converti, R. E. Mayer, G. Guido, P. C. Florido, N. E. Patiño, L. Sobehart,
S. Gomez, A. Larreteguy, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro,
Nuclear Measurement Conditions in Cold Fusion Experiments. D. Abriola,
, M. Davidson, M. Debray, M. C. Etchegoyen. N. Fazzini, J. Fernández Niello, A.
M. J. Ferrero, A. Filevich,
M. C. Galia, R. Garavaglia,
G. Garcia Bermúdez, R. T. Gettar, S. Gil, H. Grahmann,
H. Huck, A. Jech, A. J. Kreiner,
A. O. Macchiavelli, J. G. Magallanes,
E. Maqueda, G. Marti, A. J. Pacheco, M. L. Pérez, C. Pomar, M. Ramirez, M. Scasserra,
in the Fleischmann, Pons, Hawkins Experiment. R.
D. Petrasso, X. Chen, K. Wenzel, R. R. Parker, C.
K. Li, C. Fiore, Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of
Neutron and Gamma-Ray Emission Rates and Calorimetry in Electrochemical Cells Having Palladium Cathodes. S. C. Luckhardt, X. Chen, C. Fiore, M. Gaudreau,
D. Gwinn, P. Linsay, R. Parker, R. Petrasso, K. Wenzel (Plasma Fusion Center), R. Crooks,
V. Cammarata, M. Schloh,
D. Albagli, M. Wrighton (Dept, of Chemistry), R. Ballinger, I. Hwang (Dept. of Material Science and
Engineering), Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Tests of "Cold
Fusion" in a New Configuration. F. Skiff, H. M. Milchberg, J. Rogers, Laboratory for Plasma Research,
Cold Nuclear Fusion
of Dense Metallic Hydrogen: Implications for Astrophysics. C.
J. Horowitz, Nuclear
Theory of Cold
Fusion. M. Danos, National
Institute of Standards & Technology
Limits on Cold
Fusion in Matter: A Parametric Study. J. Rafelski, M. Gajda, D.
Harley, S. E. Jones,
Fusion in Metals. D. A. Browne, R. G. Goodrich, P. N.
Kirk., E. F. Zganjar, Louisiana State University.
The Cold Fusion
Rate of d-d in PdDx Hydride and the Branching
Ratio of He-4 to (p,n)
Production Reactions. Hiroshi Takahashi, Brookhaven
Criterion for Cold
Fusion in the Condensed State. E. A. Stern,
Estimates of the Enhancement of Cold Fusion of Deuterium in Deuterated Palladium Systems. M. W. C.
Dharma-wardana, G. C. Aers,
National Research Council of Canada,
Associated with Confinement of Deuterium in Palladium. B.
I. Dunlap, J. W. Mintmire, D. W. Brenner, R. C. Mowrey, H. D. Ladouceur, P.
P. Schmidt., C, T, White, W. E. O'Grady, Naval Research Laboratory.
Resonance Enhancement of Cold Nuclear Fusion. A. V. Barnes,
Heath Pois, Center for Atomic and Molecular
Physics at Surfaces and
The Bond Length of
the Deuterium Molecule in a Metallic Lattice. A. B. Hassam,
; A. N. Dharamsi,
Cold Fusion. Ming Li,
Simple yet Accurate
Model Potential for Calculating Cold Fusion Rates. J. D.
; H. J. Monkhorst,
Exotic QED and Cold
Nuclear Fusion. Ming Li,
Radiations from Cold Fusion Pd-D System. R.
S. Raghavan, L. C. Feldman, M. M. Broer, A. James, D. Murphy, AT&T Bell Laboratories,
Murray Hill, NJ.
Cold Nuclear Fusion: Recent Results
and Open Questions
S. E. JONES, Brigham Young University
We have shown that nuclear fusion between hydrogen isotopes can be induced by
binding the nuclei closely together for a sufficiently long time, without the
need for high-temperature plasmas. For example, muon-catalyzed
fusion occurs rapidly when negative muons are added
to liquid deuterium-tritium mixtures, forming small muon-bound
d-t molecules that fuse in picoseconds. Recent experimental results
illuminate the rich tapestry of processes that
constitute the muon catalysis cycle, while a number
of questions remain yet unresolved . We have also accumulated considerable
evidence for a new form of cold nuclear fusion which occurs when hydrogen
isotopes are loaded into various materials, notably crystalline solids
(without muons). Implications of these findings on
geophysics and fusion research will be considered.
Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Energy
 S.E.Jones, J. Rafelski,
H.J.Monkhorst, eds. "Muon
Catalyzed Fusion 1988", AIP Publication 181, pp.1-469 (1989).
Cold Fusion: Can it be True? A
Theoretical Point of View
J. RAFELSKI, University of Arizona, Tucson
It is shown that the fusion rates observed by the BYU team of S.E. Jones
during electrolytic infusion of hydrogen into Pd and Ti cathodes can readily
be explained by combination of standard nuclear physics data and WKB
penetration integrals in the metal lattice environment. A specific mechanism
for the process invoking formation of Bose macroscopic state (drop) of
deuterium ions neutralised by an electron cloud
will be described.
State of the attempts to skew the branching ratios of nuclear reactions by 12
orders of magnitude towards processes not involving production of neutrals
(neutrons, gammas) will be given. This would be needed to account for production
of heat without penetrating radiation in a nuclear process, as suggested by
the press release of the University
Theoretical Issues and Problems
Raised by Cold Fusion Experiments.*
S. E. KOONIN, Institute for Theoretical Physics, UCSB.**
I will discuss several challenges to our current
understanding posed by recent cold fusion experiments. In particular I will
review calculations of the rates for various hydrogen fusion reactions in
molecular and condensed matter systems. I will also discuss the potentially
large effect of lattice fluctuations on fusion rates in solids. Finally, I
will review the shortcomings of various proposals to "hide" the
radiation produced in d + d and p + d fusion.
*Supported by the National Science Foundation, grants PHY86-04197 and
** On leave from the California Institue of
Calorimetry, Neutron Flux, Gamma Flux, and Tritium Yield from
Electrochemically Charged Palladium in D2O
NATHAN LEWIS, CHARLES BARNES, and STEVE KOONIN, California Institute of
We report the results of our work on cold fusion using palladium. We have
used extremely sensitive neutron, gamma ray, and photon counters, and can
place strict upper limits on the flux of expected nuclear products emitted
from charged Pd cathodes. Liquid scintillation counting has been used to
measure tritium production, which was found at background levels for extended
periods of time. However, a subtle chemical interference that generates chemiluminescence has been shown to yield trituim signals and lead to overestimates of the fusion
yield based on tritium production. We have also performed accurate,
calibrated calorimetry, and have identified several
serious errors that can make the measurements appear to show excess power
production. When these common errors are eliminated, a correct energy balance
is obtained, We will also discuss the calorimetric experiments performed by
the Utah researchers, will explain their
calculations to the physics community, and will clearly state the assumptions
and corrections implicit in the Utah
Boson Screening of Deuterium in
K.B. Whaley, University of California, Berkeley
We analyze the role which bose
nuclear statistics of deuterium can have in enhancing local density fluctuations
and coulomb screening deuterium in metals. Results of boson tight binding
calculations for D in Pd are used to assess the feasibility of rate
enhancements for D-D nuclear fusion, due to boson screening and lattice
fluctuations. The possible relevance of a bose condensate, and implications for experimental observation
of cold nuclear fusion of deuterium in metals are discussed.
An Investigation of Cold Fusion using
a Sensitive Neutron Detector
W.K. BROOKS, D.G. MARCHLENSKI, J.D. KALEN, M.S. ISLAM, M. KAITCHUCK, R.
MCCREERY*, R.N. BOYD, P. HOLBROOKE, H. DYKE, The Ohio State Univ
A careful measurement of neutron production from a Pd electrode in an
electrolytic cell has been performed. The neutron detection system consisted
of a BC 501 liquid scintillator contained in a 4.0
cm thick, 18.5 cm dia. pyrex
cylinder, surrounded by a plastic anticoincidence shield and lead housing.
Pulse shape discrimination was used to identity neutron signals. This system
yielded low backgrounds with approximately 1% counting efficiency. Initial
results indicate no neutron production over a period of about 40 hours of
counting. Estimates will be presented of how this may be compared to previous
data. Further plans for more detailed studies of cold fusion will be described,
including chemical analyses of the palladium electrode.
*Department of Chemistry
Search for Neutron Production in a
Palladium-Heavy Water Electrolytic Cell*
R. HIROSKY, E. BUCHANAN, J. JORNE, A.C. MELISSINOS, and J. TOM ,
University of Rochester**
We have searched for neutrons produced in an electrolytic cell filled with
heavy water (D2O) and having a Palladium cathode. We set a limit
of 1 count/sec from 0.7 cm3 of Pd, operated continuously for five
days at a current of 2A. This limit is 4X104
lower than the rate claimed by Pons and Fleischmann1
for a similar cell.
* Submitted by A. C. Melissinos
** Supported by the DOE and the NSF.
 M. Fleischmann and S. Pons,
paper submitted to Journal of Electroanalytical
Chem., March 20, 1989.
A Search for Cold Fusion Neutrons at
D.P. HUTCHINSON, R.K. RICHARDS, CA. BENNETT, C.C. HAVENER, C.H. MA, F.G.
PEREY, R.R. SPENCER. J.K DICKENS, B.D. ROONEY, ORNL*; J. BULLOCK IV and G.L
POWELL, Y-12 Development
A number of experiments were begun on 29 March 1989 to look for neutron
emission from a palladium cathode in an electrolytic cell using a deutrated electrolyte. Several different electrode
configurations were tried. The fast neutron detector utilized a pair of NE213
scintillator/photomultiplier pairs in a shielded
enclosure. Data will be presented on the efficiency and background level of
the detector system. At present no neutron counts above the background level
have been detected.
*Operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the U.S. Department of
Energy under contract No. DE-AC05.84OR21400.
Analysis of "Excess Power in
W. E. MEYERHOF, Stanford University,* D. L. HUESTIS and D. C. LORENTS, SRI International
The apparent excess energy release of 4 MJ in heavy-water electrolysis with
Pd electrodes is impossible to explain with known chemical or physical
processes. Solution of the heat equation for cylindrical calorimeters with
the geometries of Ref. 1 or 2 show that in
steady-state calorimetry temperature gradients
exist even with weak stirring. Hence, fictious
excess power can be found, depending on the placement of the thermometer.
This is particularly severe in Pd+D electrochemical
reactions because the dissipative part of the 0.8 to 2 V overvoltage1
releases heat at the surface of the Pd electrode, The observed differences
between ordinary and heavy water2 can also be explained because
for Pd+H the overvoltage
is much smaller than for Pd+D.
 M. Fleischmann and S. Pons, J. Electroanaly. Chem. 261, 301 (1989).
 A. Belzner, U. Sischler,
C. Crouch-Baker, T. Gur, G. Lucier,
M. Schreiber, R. A. Huggins, to be published.
*Supported in part by NSF grant PHY 86-14650.
Generation of D-D Fusion-Reaction
Bursts in Metal Deuterides
H. Furth, S. Bernabei, S.
Cowley, and R. Kulsrud
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University.*
The emission of D-D fusion neutrons from "cold" objects could be
due to bombardment by bursts of energetic deuterons. One key test of this
interpretation is the consistency of the observed neutron-count statistics
with the predicted Poisson distribution for intense, short neutron bursts. We
find that the data shown in Fig. 2 of Ref. 1 are fitted perfectly by this
mathematical model. The smaller count rates of Ref. 2 do not lend themselves
to as sharp a statistical test—though perhaps serving to exclude
"large-burst" theories such as cosmic μ-meson catalysis. A
possible means for the acceleration of deuterons is mechanical fracture—as in
the reported generation of neutrons during impact of high-velocity
projectiles on lithium deuteride crystals.
Repeating the experiments of Refs. 1-3 with mixtures of hydrides and deuterides could provide a measure of the relative
importance of quantum-mechanical tunneling versus simple cold-target
*Work supported by U.S.D.o.E. Contract No,
 A. DeNinno, et al., submitted to Europhysics Letters.
 S. E. Jones, et al., Nature, 338, April 27 (1989).
 V. A. Klyuev, et al., Sov.
Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 551 (1986).
Gammas from Cold Fusion
D. Bailey,* University
The absence of both neutrons and gamma rays can be used to constrain possible
cold fusion processes in deuterium-metal systems. In particular, milliwatt cold fusion processes in palladium producing
fast protons, tritium, 3He or 4He
nuclei would also usually produce easily observable numbers of Coulomb
excitation palladium gamma rays. Typical expected yields are approx. 104
- 106 gammas per joule of fusion energy in lines at 0.374, 0.434,
0.512 and 0.556 MeV. Reported1 2.2 MeV np
capture gamma rays are consistent with the ubiquitous radon daughter 214Bi
2.204 MeV background line.
* BITNET address: DBAILEY4UTORPHYS
** Supported in part by NSERC (Canada).
 M.Fleischmann, S. Pons,
and M. Hawkins, J. Electroanal. Chem. 261 (1989)
301, and errata.
Sources of Neutrons. and Tritium from D-Li-6 Mixtures
Lawrence Cranberg, TDN, Inc.
The work of Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins (1)
claims detection of room temperature fusion of deuterons based in part on
detection of neutrons and of tritium in electrochemical experiments with
vessels containing mixtures of compounds of deuterium and lithium-6.
Alternative, well-known nuclear reactions induced by ambient gamma-rays and
neutrons in the experimental materials are suggested, together with suitable
control experiments to measure those effects. It is significant to note that
a negative result on (1) or on the work of Jones et al. (2), with
experimental cells replaced by a blank or hydrogen-filled cell is not a check
on the proposed background sources.
 M. Fleischmann, B. Pons, M. Hawkins, J. Electroanalytical Chemistry, 261, 301 (1989).
 S. E. Jones, E. P. Palmer, J. B. Czirr, D. L.
Decker, G. L. Jensen, J. M. Thorne, S. F. Taylor, and J. Rafelski,
Preprint of article submitted to Nature.
Searches for Cold Fusion*
E. B. Norman, B. Sur, K. T. Lesko,
K.R. Czerwinski, H. L. Hall, R. A. Henderson, and D. C. Hoffman
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
Following the reported observations of nuclear fusion reactions of deuterium
nuclei loaded into metallic crystalline lattices,1,2 we have
searched for neutrons and gamma rays that should be produced by such
processes. Two separate D2O cells containing the electrodes and
electrolytes described in Refs. I and 2 have been operated over a period of
three weeks. Fast neutrons have been searched for using liquid scintillators and dosimetry
film. Prompt gamma rays have been searched for using Nal
detectors; induced radioactivity in the electrodes was searched for using Ge detectors. Background measurements have been conducted
with the cells turned off. Measurements of the mass of a palladium electrode
before and after electrolysis showed that the number of deuterium atoms
loaded was 0.5 per Pd atom. No excess of neutrons or gamma rays above
background has been observed. Upper limits on the possible rates of fusion
reactions occurring in these cells will be presented.
* Supported by the U.S.
Dept. of Energy under Contract No. DE- C03-765F00098.
 M. Fleischmann and S. Pons, preprint
 S. E. Jones et. al., preprint
Search for Cold Fusion in
D. R. McCRACKEN, J. PAQUETTE, R. E. JOHNSON, N. A.
BRIDEN, W. G. CROSS, A. ARNEJA, D. C. TENNANT, M. A. LONE, AND W. J. L.
BUYERS, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories
A variety of electrolytic cells have been studied having palladium cathodes
in the form of wires, tubes, rods or foil and having anodes of platinum wire
or foil, or of nickel tube. Some of these cells have a cylindrical
configuration similar to the cell in which cold fusion is claimed by
Fleischmann and Pons to have occurred. The
electrolyte was 0.1 molar LiOD in virgin D2O.
An AECL wet proofed catalyst above the cell was used to recombine the evolved
D2 and O2. Current densities up to 140
mA/cm2 have been applied. Arrays of 3 to 5 3He
detectors were mounted beside each cell in a central 20 cm cavity of a large
130 cm x 120 cm x 90 cm wax neutron shield. This gives a very low, constant
background of 30±2 counts/hour summed over all five detectors or 18±2
counts/hour for three detectors, After running the cells for times of three
to four days no excess neutrons were observed above background. The cells
were run mainly in continuous mode but a search for transient neutrons was
also done after switching on the current. No measurable excess heat was
observed in the water from the cooling jacket. In a cell without a recombiner the enrichment in tritium in the electrolyte
was not inconsistent with the range of D/T separation factors that occur at palladium
Search for DD-Fusion Neutrons
D. SEELIGER, K. WIESENER, A. MEISTER, D. OHMS, D. REHNER, R. SCHWIERZ, P.
WUSTNER, Technical University, Dresden
Using a large volume liquid scintillation detector and other neutron and
gamma-ray detectors, we measured the radiation arriving from the electrolysis
of heavy water with a palladium cathode. Using an efficient proton recoil
neutron spectrometer (NE-213 scintillator coupled
to an XP-2040 phototube) equipped with electronic depression of gamma rays
and cosmic ray muon background, evidence was found
for a weak fast neutron production. In the proton recoil energy range between
2 MeV and 3 MeV at an
average background rate of about 85 counts per hour, the order of 20±5 counts
per hour coming from the 60 x 47 x 3 mm3 palladium sheet was
observed. This results in a neutron producing reaction rate of approximately 0.1 s-1 in the whole volume of the
Fusion Rates for Hydrogen Isotopic
Molecules of Relevance for Cold Fusion*
K. SZALEWICZ, J.D. MORGAN III: U. Delaware; H.J. MONKHORST: U. Florida
In response to the recent announcements of evidence for room-temperature
fusion in the electrolysis of
D2O, we have analyzed how the fusion rate depends on several
factors, including the reduced mass of the fusing nuclei and the degree of vibrational excitation. Calculations have been performed
within the adiabatic approximation employing an accurate Born-Oppenheimer
potential energy curve and including the adiabatic and relativistic
corrections. We have also used the WKB approximation which displays the
essence of these factors. Our results predict fusion rates for the ground vibrational states up to 14 orders of magnitude larger
than previously estimated and exhibit a strong dependence of the Coulomb
barrier penetration factor on the reduced mass of the pair of nucleons. We
have found that fusion out of vibrationally excited
states is enhanced by several orders of magnitude, which may be of particular
significance in light of the experimental evidence for the importance of
non-equilibrium conditions. To assist in the investigation of whether a
'heavy' electron arising from complicated collective solid-state effects
could play a role in the enhanced fusion rates seen in the experiments, we
study how the Coulomb barrier penetration factor depends on the mass of a
hypothetical particle (or quasi-particle) of charge -1. We examine the issue
of whether the excess heat observed in one of the experiments could arise
from the aneutronic fusion reaction p + d → 3He
+ γ. We find that under the conditions implied by the measurements of
the neutron flux from the reaction d + d → 3He+n, it is unlikely that the excess heat observed by
one of the groups could arise from p + d fusion.
* Supported by the NSF and by the Division of Advanced Energy Projects, DOE.
Upper Limits to Fusion Rates of
Isotopic Hydrogen Molecules at High Electron Density Interstitial Pd Sites*
L. WILETS, A ALBERG, J. J. REHR and J. MUSTRE de LEON. Univ. of Washington.
We have studied upper bounds for p-d and d-d fusion rates in a degenerate
electron gas as a function of screening electron density (αrs--3) and
confinement potential in a Pd lattice. At tetrahedral (T) and octahedral (0)
sites of saturated PdD we estimate rs to
be between 2.0 and 2.8 α0, which gives an upper limit of 10-57/s
for p-d and 10-67/s for d-d. A rate 10-21/s would
require an rs of 0.27 α0 for p-d. Confinement by the
Pd atoms considerably enhances these rates. With a T-site hard cell radius of
0.65 α0 we obtain upper bounds of 10-30/s and 10-34/s
respectively; rates at O-sites are lower. However, a more realistic
confinement potential at the T-sites is softer and gives only 10-49/s:
moreover, occupation of T-sites is chemically (and perhaps structurally)
unfavorable, given a D2 confinement
energy of about 30 eV. We conclude that fusion in
Pd is most favorable at the T-site, but even there at rates significantly
less than quoted experimental values of 10-19 - 10-23/s.
Supported in part by the DOE and the NSF.
Cannot Enhance the Cold Fusion Rate Enough
A. J. LEGGETT and G. BAYM. Department of Physics, University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801
To achieve the rate of neutron production, approx. 10-23/sec/deuteron
pair, by cold fusion of deuterium in solid Pd or Ti, requires the solid-state
environment to produce either an unusual enhancement of the fusion reaction
rate, or a large suppression of the Coulomb barrier between deuterons—the
latter presumably arising from some kind of sophisticated many-body screening
effect. We point out that a very severe exact quantum-mechanical constraint
is imposed on all such enhanced screening mechanisms in solids in equilibrium
by observable behavior of a 4He atom in the metal in question.
Unless the latter is quite anomalous, or the deuteron pair correlation
function is of order 1012 at atomic separations, no enhancement of
the Coulomb barrier penetration anywhere near the magnitude required to
explain the fusion rates inferred from the experiments is possible in a solid
in at zero temperature; in thermal equilibrium at room temperature such an
enhancement would require at a minimum very exotic long range influences on
the tunneling process.
Electrochemically Induced Excess Heat
in a "Cold Fusion" cell with Zr2Pd Electrode
Joseph Cantrell, Dept of Chemistry and William E. Wells, Dept. of
Physics, Miami University, Oxford, OH
A "Cold Fusion" cell patterned after that of Fleischmann and Pons' was constructed using Zr2Pd foils
instead of Pd rods. The total volume of the electrode was 0.014 cm3.
At a room temperature of 239 K, the electrodes drew 90 mA
with 4.8 V applied, and presented a 6 K change in temperature. when a 10 ohm resister, drawing 219 mA
in the heavy water bath, was used to produce heating instead of the
electrodes, the temperature rise over the 289 K background was 3 K. No
neutron measurements have been made as yet. The temperature dependence of the
process is positive. The process continued for more than 100 hours, before
decaying. DOE Mound Labs-EG&G examined the cell electrode, electrolyte
solution, and a copious precipitate in the bottom of the test tube, with SIM
microprobe, XRD, Auger, and Atomic Absorption. These results will be
 Fleischmann and Pons J. Electroanal.
Chem., 261 301-308 (1989)
Search for Fusion Products Using
M. R. DEAKIN, J. D. FOX, K. W. KEMPER, E. G. MYERS, W. N. SHELTON, and J. G.
SKOFRONICK, Florida State University*
The fusion of deuterons should produce energetic protons in about half the
reactions in an electrolysis cell with Pt anode and Pd cathode. Our cell is
specially constructed with a thin window so that K x-rays of Pd, excited by
charged fusion products (mostly protons) can be detected. The background of
the x-ray detector, 3 counts per hour in the vicinity of the Pd K x-rays,
corresponds to fewer than 50 fusions per second or fusion energy release rate
of less than 10-10 watts in the Pd cathode. The cell has been
operated for two weeks as of 4/29/89.
*Supported by the National Science Foundation and the State of Florida.
Search for Neutrons and Gamma-Rays
from "Cold Fusion" in Deuterided Metals*
M. GAI, S. L. RUGARI, R. H. FRANCE, B. J. LUND, and Z. ZHAO, A. W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale Univemity, New Haven, Connecticut 06511; A. l. DAVENPORT
and H. S. ISAACS, Dept. of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory,
Upton, NY 11973; and K. G. LYNN, Dept. of Physics and Applied Science,
Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973
A search for neutrons and gamma-rays emitted in "cold fusion" in electrolytically deuterided
metals was carried out with a very low background and a sensitive neutron
detection system. composed of an array of six
liquid-scintillator neutron counters, with
efficiency of approx. 1%. Pulse shape, pulse height and time of flight were
measured for scattered neutrons. Gamma-rays were detected in two large (12.5
cm) NaI(Tl) detectors, with efficiency of 0.1% at 5.5 MeV. The detection system was shielded from background
radiation and two large area cosmic-ray veto counters were utilized, Up to
four electrochemical cells, similar to the ones used by Fleischmann and Pons and Jones et al., ran concurrently, with Pd or cold
worked Ti rods as cathodes. The Pd electrodes were cold worked or annealed in
vacuum or argon, one electrode was predeuterided
and various surface treatments were carried out. The metals were
electrochemically charged with deuterium in heavy water (97.5% or 99.8% D2O)
electrolytes containing LiOD or a variety of salts.
Ti alloy powder deuterided at high temperature and
pressure was also used for comparison. During electrochemical charging, no
statistically significant deviation from the background was observed in
either gamma-ray or neutron detectors, after some of the cells were on for
almost three weeks. Using our neutron detector system we estimate (e.g., for
a 7 hour run at the end of two weeks of cell electrolysis) the rate of
"cold fusion" of d + d in our Pd and Ti samples to be smaller than
the order of 10-25 fusions/atom pair/sec (3σ limit), and the
gamma ray data yield a rate of "cold fusion" of p + d smaller than
the order of 10-22 fusions/atom pair/sec (3σ limit). The p +
d reaction was recently estimated to be eight orders of magnitude larger than
the d + d rate. The estimated neutron flux in our experiment is at least a
factor of 100 smaller than that reported by Jones et al. and some million
times smaller than that reported by Fleischmann and Pons.
Cosmic rays have been observed to produce neutrons with energies expected for
fusion events. An attempt to initiate "cold fusion" with 5 MeV alpha particles produced no measurable effect.
*Supported in part by U.S.D.O.E. contracts Numbers: DE-AC0276ER03074, DE-AC02-76CH00016.
A Survey of Cold Fusion
DOUGLAS R. O. MORRISON*, CERN, Geneva,
The history of fusion of hydrogen to helium from 1926 until today is
reviewed. World results are tabulated and summarized,
Problems with the 1989 original papers from Utah and BYU are described. Consequences
from the structure of palladium hydrides are drawn. Possible explanations are
considered. Conclusions on cold fusion are made and placed in historical
Dynamic Response of Thermal Neutron
Measurements in Electrochemically Produced Cold Fusion Subject to Pulsed
J. R. GRANADA, J. CONVERTI, R. E. MAYER, G. GUIDO, P. C. FLORIDO, N. F. PATIÑO, L. SOBEHART, S. GOMEZ, AND A. LARRETEGUY,
Centro Atomico Bariloche
and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Universidad
Nacional de Cuyo, 8400
S.C. de Bariioehe, Rio Negro, Argentina
The present work shows the results of measurements performed on electrolytic
cells using a high efficiency (22%) neutron detection system in combination
with a procedure involving a non-stationary current through the cell's
circuit. Cold fusion was produced in electrolytic cells containing LiH dissolved in heavy water with a Palladium cathode.
The dynamic response to low frequency current pulses was measured.
Characteristic patterns showing one or two bumps were obtained in a
repeatable fashion. These patterns are strongly dependent on the previous
charging history of the cathode. The technique employed seems to be very
convenient as a research tool for a systematic study of the different
variables governing the phenomenon.
Examination of Nuclear Measurement
Conditions in Cold Fusion Experiments
D. ABRIOLA, E. ACHTERBERG, M. DAVIDSON,** M. DEBRAY,
M. C, ETCHEGOYEN.- N. FAZZINI. J. FERNANDEZ NIELLO,†
A. M. J. FERRERO, A. FILEVICH, M. C. GALIA, R. GARAVAGLIA, G. GARCIA BERMÚDEZ,† R. T. GETTAR.* S. GIL. H. GRAHMANN. IT HUCK, A. JECH. A. J. KREINER,†
A. O. MACCHIAVELLI, J. F. MAGALLANES,* E. MAQUEDA,†
G. MARTI. A J. PACHECO,† M. L. PEREZ, C. POMAR, M.
RAMIREZ, and M. SCASSERRA. Departamento de Flsica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atornica, 1429 Buenos
The possible production of nuclear fusion through electrochemical processes
was studied by the simultaneous detection of γ-rays and neutrons. The
importance of high energy resolution for γ-ray measurements is
discussed. Both types of measurements yield consistent results for the upper
limits of the neutron production rates in this experiment.
*Departamento Quimica Analitica. Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica.
**Facultad de Ciencias
Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires,
† Fellows of the CONICET, Argentina.
Gamma-Ray Spectra in the Fleischmann,
Pons, Hawkins Experiment*
R.D. PETRASSO, X. CHEN, K. WENZEL, R. R. PARKER, C. K. LI, and C. FIORE,
Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins (FPH)1
recently announced that significant fusion heating was occurring in their
cold fusion experiments. As compelling evidence of fusion processes, they
reported the detection of 2.2 MeV γ rays that
result from neutron-capture-on-hydrogen. We have carefully analyzed their
published γ-ray spectra. We have also performed detailed terrestrial
γ background measurements and neutron-capture-on-hydrogen experiments.
From our analyses we conclude that the FPH γ line is specious on the
basis of three quantitative considerations: (1) It has a line width a factor of
2 smaller than the detector instrumental resolution at 2.2 MeV; (2) There is no evidence of a Compton edge at 1.99 MeV (i.e., 2.22 MeV - 0.23 MeV), and this edge should be distinctly prominent; and
(3) FPH's estimate of the neutron source rate is a
factor of 40 too large. Additionally, from terrestrial γ background
considerations, we conjecture that FPH's purported
γ line actually resides at 2.5 MeV rather than
2.2 MeV, Based solely on the three quantitative
arguments, we conclude that the γ signal reported by FPH cannot be the
2.2 MeV neutron-capture-on-hydrogen γ ray.
Supported in part by U. S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-78ET51013.
*MIT Report PFC/JA-89-24.
 J. Electroanal. Chem. 261 (1989) 301-308; and
Measurements of Neutron and Gamma Ray
Emission Rates and Calorimetry in Electrochemical
Cells Having Palladium Cathodes
S.C. LUCIHAIDT, X. CHEN, C. FIORE, M.
GAUDREAU, D. GWINN, P. LINSAY, L PARKER, R. PETRASSO, K. VENZEL, Plasma Fusion Center, R. CROOKS, V. CAMMARATA, M.
SCHLOH, D. ALBAGLI, M. WR IGHTON, Department of Chemistry, R. BALLINGER, I.
HWANG, Department of Material Science and Engineering, MIT
Results of experiments intended to reproduce the excess heat and neutron
emission from electrochemical cells reported in Ref. 1 are presented.
Radiation emission and power balance measurements were carried out on a set
of electrochemical cells consisting of Pd cathodes, Pt anodes, D2O
or H20 solvent with LiOD or LiOH electrolyte. The current density at the Pd cathode was
32 mA/cm2 to 250 mA/cm2 at applied
voltages of 3.0 V to 15.0 V. Moderated BF3 neutron detectors
were absolutely calibrated; for a source strength of 160 neutrons/sec count
rates would be twice the background level. X-ray pulse height spectroscopy
with NaI(T1) detectors monitored the neutron
capture process p(n,γ)d. Power balance during
electrolysis was monitored by means of a constant temperature calorimeter in
both D2O and H20 electrolytic cells with accuracy of
 M.Fleischmann, S.Pons,
and M. Hawkins, Journal of Electroanalytical
Chemistry, 261, 301 (1989).
Tests of "Cold Fusion" in a
F. SKIFF, H. M MILCHBERG, and J. ROGERS,
Laboratory for Plasma Research, University of Maryland. College Park, MD 20742
Loading palladium metal with hydrogen isotopes is accomplished in a plasma
environment as opposed to an electrolyte in order to permit sensitive tests
of potential nuclear events. A palladium electrode is immersed into a plasma of deuterium and ion absorption is enhanced by
drawing ion current. The plasma environment permits rapid loading of the
metal, sensitive tests of gas composition, as well as searching for neutrons
without moderation by water. Preliminary results will be discussed.
Cold Nuclear Fusion in Dense Metallic
Hydrogen: Implications for Astrophysics
C.J. HOROWITZ, Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana U.*
The rate of nuclear fusion from tunnelling of zero
point motion in very dense metallic hydrogen is calculated assuming a simple
crystal of nuclei interacting via screened coulomb potentials. At a density
of five g/cm3 the fusion rate is 10-50 per H-D pair per
second. Thus fusion may not contribute to the heating of Jupiter unless a
more efficient mechanism is found. However increasing the density to 300 to 2600
g/cm3 increases the rate to 10-21 to 10-12
sec-1. It is speculated that a cold condensed object with a small
amount of deuterium could be reheated via p + D cold fusion and start
conventional thermonuclear fusion.
*Supported by the DOE.
Theory of Cold Fusion
M . Danos, NIST
Note: Some symbols were illegible.
The lowest order Feynman graph leading to dd fusion
in the vicinity of a lattice nucleus, X, is given by the tree graph Fig. I. We assume that the deuteron d1, is
trapped (trapping wave function ψc(t)) and the deuteron d2 flies by with relative
velocity v2 = (2T/[illegible]) ([illegible] = c = 1). All moments
t1 < 50 meV are thermal. Hence the
initial state is given by a density matrix. In the final state E f+
ef= Q =
24 MeV. The electromagnetic vertices F(q) and f(q),
even though off-the-mass-shell, are given in order of magnitude by the form
factors known from electron scattering, and ψ(p) is the momentum space
wave function of the d-d component of the 4He ground state, which
can be estimated from nuclear structure data. The order of magnitude of the
resulting rates corresponds to the observed rate of 10-10 sec-1.
(The reaction mechanism is easiest understood by considering the time-reversed
reaction.) The suppression of the emission of protons or neutrons arises from
the replacement of f(q) by the break-up from factor
f(q,q1), Fig. 2, and by the replacement of the 2-body by the
3-body density of states. Similarly, the photon emission is suppressed by the
replacement of the fusion vertex ψ(p) by mean ψ (p, k), Fig. 3. The details
will be presented.
Limits on Cold Fusion in Matter: a
J. RAFELSKI, M. GAJDA, D. HARLEY and S.E. JONES**, University of Arizona
The rate of nuclear fusion of d-d hydrogen isotopes is studied as a function
of several parameters, and is found to be critically sensitive in a regime of
the parameter space that could be of physical relevance and also account for
the fusion rate recently measured by Jones et al. The fusion rate in the (dde)+ ion-like structure is computed as a
function of the maximum allowed hydrogen separation and as a function of an
effective electronic mass and charge, leading to a fusion rate of the needed
magnitude. These numerical exercises highlight the extraordinary sensitivity
of the fusion rate to the physical parameters and the environment
characterizing the system in which the (dde)+ complex is embedded. It is further shown
that the effect each of these parameters has on the fusion rate is cumulative
and that a neutron rate of 10-23 s-1 per atom is
obtained with a plausible combination of these parameters. The fusion rate
resulting from a low energy, less than 100 eV d-d
scattering description is also computed and is shown to be too small.
* Work supported by DOE/AEP
** Brigham Young University
Electron Catalyzed Fusion in Metals'
D. A. BROWNE, R. G. GOODRICH, P, N. KIRK and E. F. ZGANJAR, L.S.U.
We present a simple model for the induction of nuclear fusion in metals
through the formation of neutral and charged deuterium complexes similar to
the mechanism of muon catalyzed fusion. The role of
various materials properties of Pd and other metals in enhancing the fusion
rate will also be discussed. We are currently taking measurements on a sample
of Pd and a heavy fermion material and will present
the results of our experiment in light of the model.
`Supported by LSU
Center for Energy
The Cold Fusion Rate of d-d in PdDx Hydride and the Branching Ratio of the He-4 to (p,n) Production Reactions
HIROSHI TAKAHASHI, Brookhaven National Laboratory
Many electrons from the d and s conduction bands of PdDx
hydride pile up near deuterons. This accumulation results to large screening
of potential between deuterons and enhances the cold fusion rate. The number
of the piled up electron is approximately proportional to the inverse of the
density of the conduction electron level at the Fermi level; the linear
response theory underestimates the number of electrons by about a factor of 4
less than the nonlinear response theory. The branching ratio of the
production process of He-4 to (p and n) is extremely small in the collision
experiment, and the transition from the s wave channel in cold fusion to the
ground He-4 0+ state by emitting gamma-ray is prohibitive. The
He-4 production process of emitting the surrounding electrons becomes
appreciable, and to get an extremely large branching ratio requires the
coherent direct excitation of optical phonons of PdDx
hydride or coherent excitation through the surrounding conduction electrons
by a strong electron lattice coupling. This work is supported by DOE Advanced
Energy Project Division.
Criterion for Cold Fusion in the
E.A. STERN,* Physics Dept. FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195
To increase the rate of tunneling through the coulomb barrier between two
nuclei of isotopic hydrogen in the condensed state, the surrounding electrons
must provide a more efficient shielding than occurs in the molecule. Koonin and Nauenberg(1) expressed this increased shielding requirement in
terms of at least a five-fold increase in the electron mass to be consistent
with claims of experiments. From Thomas-Fermi screening theory this
requirement translates to at least a 53 = 125-fold increase in the
electron density from its value in the molecule. This required density is
several orders of magnitude greater than occurs in metallic hydrides in
either the interstitial sites or any defect sites where hydrogen can reside.
Cold fusion cannot occur in the condensed state under conditions employed in
the reported experiments.
*Research supported by DOE grant DE-FGO6-84ER45163.
 S.E. Koonin and M. Nauenberg,
Santa Barbara Institute for Theoretical Physics preprint NSF-ITP-89-48. April
Theoretical Estimates of the
Enhancement of Cold Fusion of Deuterium in Deuterated
M. W. C. DHARMAWARDANA AND G. C. AERS. Division of Physics, National Research
Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
KIA OR6. [Bitnet: Chandre at NRCVMOI, FAX:
We have estimated the enhancement of the nuclear fusion rate of Pd-D type
systems and the D2+-muonium molecule in comparison with
the fusion rate in a D2-molecule at room temperature. The
theoretical model uses standard ideas on screening and nuclear reaction rate.
If very conservative estimates are made the enhancements for a pair of D+-nuclei
in Pd, PdD and in the D2+-μ
molecule are found to be 1014, 1021, and 1064.
We also discuss the dependence of the enhancement on temperature,
localization of D+ in Pd etc. These results are quite encouraging
for the possibilities of cold fusion of deuterium in palladium.
Chemical Forces Associated with
Confinement of Deuterium in Palladium
B. I. DUNLAP, J. W. MINTMIRE. D. W. BRENNER, R. C. MOWREY, H. D. LADOUCEUR,
P. P. SCHMIDT, C. T. WHITE, and W. E. O'GRADY, Naval Research Laboratory
First-principles and embedded-atom methods were used to study the effective
interaction between two deuterons in a palladium lattice. At scales ranging
from 0.1 to 1.0 A no effects are found to suggest that the effective
interaction between two deuterons in palladium is significantly reduced from
what is expected for gas phase D2. Our results show clearly that
molecular D2 in palladium should dissociate to distances of the
order of 1.0 A or greater even in PdH2
Enhancement of Cold Nuclear Fusion
A. V. BARNES and HEATH POIS, Center for Atomic and Molecular Physics at
Surfaces and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt
University, Nashville, TN 37235
Resonance between molecular and nuclear states is considered as a possible
means of enhancing fusion rates. Calculations of fusion reaction rates based
on a two state description of the resonating system are presented. In
particular we show the deuterium-deuterium gas phase fusion rates with
resonance are orders of magnitude larger than rates without resonance.
The Bond Length of the Deuterium
Molecule in a Metallic Lattice
A. B. HASSAM,* Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland,
College Park, and A. N. DHARAMSI,* Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk
The bond length of the D2 molecule in vacuum is .7 A. The lattice
constant of palladium is 4 A. If the D2 molecule forms inside a
primitive lattice cell, what is the bond length? We suggest that the bond
length of the D2 molecule is reduced by lattice effects as
follows: Because of the nature of the metallic bond, a preponderance of
electronic charge is expected at the center of the lattice cell from the
Fermi sea. The D+ nuclei in a D2 molecule forming at
the center of the cell, therefore, are subject to an extra attractive force
from this preponderance, leading to a reduction in bond length. We present a
numerical solution of the ground state wavefunction
of the D2 molecular ion in the presence of an externally imposed
negative charge concentration. For a total charge on the order of one
electronic charge and scale size of the concentration of order 1 A, we show
that up to a 50% reduction in the bond length of D2 is effected.
Results of the numerical solution for various charge distributions are
presented. Similar results for the D2 molecule, obtained by a
model calculation, are also discussed.
Fluctuations and Cold Fusion*
MING LI, University of Maryland, College
We examine more closely the recent suggestion of Koonin
that fusion rate can be enhanced by fluctuations. We look at several possible
mechanisms for the fluctuations. The relevance to the heat generation in the
core of Jupiter is also discussed. To gain some insight into these
fluctuations, we propose to exactly soluble models: the one-dimensional model
of an open quantum system for a harmonic oscillator and the two-dimensional
lattice gas model. The fusion rate reported by Jones et al. requires
fluctuations of such magnitude which are unlikely to be present in the
*Supported by the U.S.
Department of Energy
Simple yet Accurate Model Potential
for Calculating Cold Fusion Rates
J.D. MORGAN III, Harvard University,* and R. J. MONKHORST, U. of Florida**
Following the fundamental analysis of Jackson1 and more recent
work by van Siclen and Jones,2
we have developed a very simple model potential which allows us to calculate
with remarkable accuracy the Coulomb barrier penetration factor which appears
in thee fusion rate. Our approach is very useful in showing how the Coulomb
barrier penetration factor depends on various physical parameters, and in
allowing one to make a simple yet accurate estimate of fusion rates. We will
show how one can use our result to relate the measured d-d fusion rate to the
rates of other fusion reactions involving hydrogen isotopes.
*Permanent address: Dept. of Physics, U. of Delaware.
Supported by NSF grant PITY-8608155.
**Supported by the Division of Advanced Energy Projects of the Dept. of
 J.D. Jackson, Phys. Rev. 106, 330 (1957).
 C. DeW. van Siclen and S.E. Jones, J. Phys. G 12, 213 (1986).
Exotic QED and Cold Nuclear Fusion*
MING LI, University of Maryland, College Park
If one could see any signal of cold fusion at all using the best state of the
art neutron detector, the corresponding fusion rate would still be many
orders of magnitude larger than what would be expected on the basis of
conventional wisdom. Should unmistakable evidence for cold nuclear fusion be
detected in the future, we suggest that non-linear and non-perturbative aspects of QED may provide an explanation
for the discrepancy in the fusion rate. Specifically, we explore one such
possibility that is motivated by the GSI experiments of anomalous e' e''' peaks.
*Supported by the U.S.
Department of Energy.
Search for Radiations from Cold
Fusion in Pd-D System
R. S. RAGHAVAN, L. C. FELDMAN, M. M. BROER, A. JAMES and D. MURPHY, AT&T
Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill,
We report on a search for neutrons from dd fusion
in Pd rods loaded electrolytically with deuterium.
Three Pd rods were used: 1) 0.125dia. x9cm long,
drawn and cold worked; 2) 0.125dia. x3 cm long,
drawn and annealed; 3) 0.41dia. x8cm long, cast and
annealed. The rods were held in two different electrolytic cells (D2O
(99.5% D)±O.1M LiOD),
current density 64 mA/cm2) placed before a 12.5dia. x12.5cm NaI(T1) detector with
5cm of polyethylene (PE) moderator interposed. A pair of plastic scintillator plates above and below the Nal(T1)
vetoed cosmic muons. The entire set-up was housed
inside 10cm thick PE surrounded on the outside with Pb
and borax. Fusion neutrons are moderated, creating inside the PE housing a
slow neutron gas that can be detected by two signal modes of γ-ray
producing reactions: (1) n-capture by protons in the PE (2.224 MeV γ); (2) 23Na and 127I
n-capture γ-rays in the range 3-7 MeV. The latter is a more sensitive signal since it is
produced inside the Nal(T1) and the background is
mostly due to cosmic rays, much less than that below 2.62 MeV
(due to natural radioactivity). From the overall n detection efficiency
(measured with an Am-Be source at the cell position) and the cosmic ray
background limit, we deduce that a neutron production rate of approx. 1 n/sec
in the cells can be measured with high confidence. After measuring for
approximately three weeks we observe < 0.08 n/sec/g Pd, (0.4 cm dia. rod) compared to approx. 2.7x103n/sec/g
Pd, claimed in recent work* for a closely similar Pd rod.
*M. Fleischmann and B. S. Pons, J. Electroanal. Chem,